Burgos, D., Tattersall, C., & Koper, R. (2007). How to represent adaptation in e-learning with IMS learning design. Interactive Learning Environments, 15(2), 161-170.
Adaptation in e-learning has been an important research topic for the last few decades in computer-based education. In adaptivity the behaviour of the user triggers some actions in the system that guides the learning process. In adaptability, the user makes changes and takes decisions. Progressing from computer-based training and adaptive hypermedia systems, adaptation in e-learning today involves new technologies and ways of expression. In this context, IMS Learning Design (IMS LD) is an e-learning specification that allows for modelling learning experiences including adaptation and personalized learning. IMS LD fulfills many of the requirements for realizing adaptive and adaptable units of learning/courses.
In this paper we review several approaches to adaptation and e-learning. In addition. we give an overview of adaptation and its main characteristics. In the second section we identify how adaptive features and elements can be modelled in IMS LD, detailing a number of example units of learning which illustrate different forms of adaptation. In the final section we discuss issues in attaining the right balance between effort invested and results acquired while modelling IMS LD adaptive Units of Learning.